M.com Semester 2 E commerce exam questions

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M.com Semester 2 E commerce exam questions

Q.15 Discuss the types of e-CRM

ANS: Patricia Seybold Group classified E-CRM into four groups:

1. Customer-Facing Applications :-

The key, customer-facing CRM applications are contact center, sales force automation, and field service. We call these” customer facing “ because your sales, field service and contact center representatives actually interact with your customers. Customer-facing CRM applications support those staff members. Customer-facing applications have been around for many years. You probably had sales force and field service automation applications before you even thought about CRM, maybe you even built them before commercial products were available. Those products that do implement these applications also predate CRM, but have now been repositioned to take advantage of the CRM trend. For Example, many of the products that implement teleservice were developed as help desk products, dating back to the late 1980’s. SFA application, originally known as contact management applications, have been around even longer. Because the implementation of these applications predates CRM, they may need to be upgraded to reflects a customer focus. These upgrades should give them that single and consistent view of your customers and your company and integrate them with the business processes that support their marketing, sales and service functions.

2. Customer-Touching Applications :- The Key customer-touching CRM applications are campaign management, ecommerce, and self-service customer support. We say “customer touching “because your customers interact directly with the applications rather than through a company representative. Customer-touching applications are relatively new certainly much never than customer-facing applications. Most date from the mid to late 1990’s. It not inconceivable that your company has not implemented any or all of these applications. Campaign management was the first attempt to automate the marketing business process, allowing companies to deliver offers to more markets more cost efficiently.

a) Personalized Web Pages (PWP):-

With the help of PWP,companies can efficiently deliver customized information, such as product information and warranty information , when the customer logs on to the personalized page. Not only can a cutomer pull information form the vendor’s site, but the vendor can also push information to the customer. PWP can record customer purchases and preferences. Typical personalized Web pages include those for bank accounts,stock portfolio accounts,credit card accounts and so on. On such sites users can see their balances,records of all current and historical transactions. American Airlines is an example of one company that uses personalized Web sites to help increase its profits. American airlines (aa.com)began offering personalized Web sites as far back as 1998. At the time, it was one of the most innovative sites,generating PWP for more than 1million registered,travel planning customers.

b) Web Self-Service (WSS):-

The Web environment provides an apportunity for customers to serve themselves. WSS provides tools for users to execute activities previously done by corporate customer service cell.

Most frequently used WSS systems are the package tracking systems provided by FedEx and UPS. In the past, if FedEx or UPS customers wanted to know the whereabouts of a package, that had to call a representative, give the information about their shipment and wait for an answer. Today,customers go to fedex.com or ups.com,insert their tracking numbers,and view the status of their packages. The benefits of web self-service for customers are quick response time, consistent and sometimes more accurate replies or data, the possibility of getting more details, and more satisfication. The benefits for organizations are lower expenses of providing service, the ability to scale service without adding more staff, strengthening business partnerships, and improved quality of service. It is not easy to implement large-scale self-service systems. They require a complex blend of work processes and technology. Also, only well-defined and repeatable procedures are well-suited for such systems.

Of the various self-service tools available, three are of special interest: Self-tracking, FAQs, and self-configuration.

 Self-tracking systems :-

like that of FedEx, where customers can find the status of an order or service in almost real time. Most large delivery services provide such services as to direct marketers such as Dell, Amazon.com, and staples. Some auto manufacturers (such as Ford )allow customers to track the progress of the production of a customized car. Some employers,universities, and public agencies enable job applicants to track the status of their job applications.

 FAQ ( Frequently Asked Questions ):-

Most Web sites provide a FAQs page. A FAQs page lists questions that are frequently asked by customers along with the answers to those questons. FAQ page enable customers to easily find answers to their questions, thereby, saving time and effort for both the Web site owner and the customer. The FAQ’s page also provides an apportunity to easily ask a question not on the FAQ’s page.

 Self-Congiguration and Customization :-

Customers can be satisfied by providing customised products. This is especially true for complex products with many options.This is why many build-toorder vendors, from Dell to Mattel, provide customers with tools to self-configure products or services.

3. Customer Centric Intelligence Applications (CCIA):-

CCIA are synonymous with CRM analytic techniquesc and business intelligence such as data mining and online analytic processing. CCIA aalyze the results of operational processing and use the results of the analysis to improve CRM applications. Reporting, data warehousing, and data mining are the main elements of CCIA. Analytics Tools the main tools used in CRM analytics include reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), data mining, and Web analytics. The following discussion covers the first three tools:

a) Reporting :- Reports can range from simple lists or charts of data and information to more complex analyses of CRM performance metrics.

Reports come in one or two forms:

 Standardized reports :-

are generated from predefined templates and provide little in the way of customization outside of reformatting.

 Query-based reports :-

provide the end users with a set of tools for a constructing the query against which the report is run.

b) Data Warehousing :-

Medium and large corportations often organize and store data in a central repositry called a data warehouse. A data warehouse has a specialized structure that makes it easy to view and analyze measures from a variety of dimensional prespectives ( Such as comparing sales data for different products sold at different stores at different times ).

The technologies used to view and analyze the data in a data warehouse are called online. Analytical Processing (OLAP). OLAP tools enable the end user to “slice and dice”the measures by various dimensions (such as products,  locations, customers, and time) and “drill down”to more detailed information and “drill up” ino aggregated or summary information.

c) Data Mining :- Data mining is another analytic activity that involves sifting through an immense amount of data to discover hidden patterns. The process of discovery can involve:

 Classification:- assigining cases into predetermined categories based on a predictable attributes.

 Clustring :- identifying natural groupings of cases based on a set of attributes.

 Association :- Searching for relationships between variables.

 Regression :- Determining a statistical function that models the data. Miscrosoft is one of a number of companies that provides data mining capabilities. It has identified a number of arens where data mining and other sophisticated analytical procedures are applied to customer data:

 Market Basket Analysis :- Discover which items tend to be bought together to create recommendations on-the-fly and to determine how product placement can directly contribute to your bottom line.

 Churn Analysis :- Anticipate customers who may be considering canceling their service and identify benefits that will keep them from leaving.

 Market Analysis :- Define market segments by automatically grouping similar customers together. Use these segments to seek profitable customers.

 Forecasting :- Predict sales and inventory amounts and learn how they are interrelated to foresee bottlenecks and improve performance.

 Data Exploration :- Analyze profitability across customer, or compare customers who prefer different brands of the same product to discover new apportunities.

 Unsurprised Learning :- Identify previously unknown relationships between various elements of your business to better inform your decisions.

 Website Analysis :- Understand how people use your Web site & group similar usage patterns to offer a better experience.

 Campaign Analysis :- Spend marketing dollars more effectively by trageting the customers most likely to respond to a promotion.

 Text Analysis :- Analyze feedback to find common themes and trends that concern your customers or employees , informing decisions with unstructured input. CRM analytics lead not only to better and more productive customer relations in terms of sales and service but also to improvement in promotion planning and analysis, marketing strategies, and supply chain management and thus,lower costs and more competitive pricing.

4. Online Networking Applications :-

Online networking refers to methods that provide the opportunity to build personal relationships with a wide range of people.Online networking and other applications support communications and collaboration among customers, business parterns and company employees. Representatives online networking tools and methods include the following:

a) Forums :- Available from internet portals, forums offer users the opportunity to participate in discussions as well as to lead forums on”niche”topics.

b) Chat Rooms :- Found on a variety of Web sites , they offer one-toone or many -to-many real-time conversations.

c) Usenet Groups :- These are collections of online discussions grouped into communities. Usenet groups existed well before the advent of the Web.

d) Blogs and Wikis :- Blogs and wikis are becoming a major online networking tool. Blogs enable companies to approach focused segments of customers. Many B2C and B2B sites sponsor blogs for their customers. By monitoring the discussion on a blog, companies can gain insight into factors such as customer satisfication.

e) E-mail Newsletters :- These newsletters usually offer the opportunity for readers to write in, particularly in”let us hear from you”sections. Because of the current bulk of e-mail advertising and marketing, customers may initially be distrustful of e-mail marketing. Therefore,newsletter articles, commentry, special offers, tips, quots and other pieces of information e-mailed to people must be presented in a professional on e-mail newsletters are listuniverse.com and new-list.com.

f) Discussion Lists :- A discussion list is a distribution tool through which an e-mail is sent to one address and then is automatically forwarded to all the people who subscribe to the list. The three main reasons a company may use such lists are:

 To learn more about custmoers in a particular industry.

 To market the company’s products and services.

 To gather and share information with a community of individuals with similar interests.

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