F.Y.B.com commerce important questions bank pdf


Commerce Paper I (Introduction to Business)

F.Y.B.com commerce important questions banK With Answer

Q1. Explain the Meaning and scope of Business.


Meaning :- According to L.H. Haney, "Business is a human movement coordinated towards creating or getting abundance through trading exercises."


Business has an extremely wide extension. It incorporates enormous number of exercises. These exercises might be assembled under Two general classes for example Industry and business.

I. Industry :

The term business alludes to that piece of business movement which straightforwardly worries about creation, handling or manufacture of labor and products. It makes structure utility. In industry, unrefined components are changed over in to completed items, which can be utilized for utilization. A few enterprises make customer merchandise while others fabricate capital products. Following are the different sorts of industriesa) Essential IndustriesThese ventures are participated in the development of essential products, for example, rice, cotton, fish and so on. The best instances of this sort of ventures are Agribusiness, fishing and so forth.

b) Hereditary Ventures :

'Hereditary industry includes rearing and proliferation of plants and creatures with the end goal of offer. Poultry, Plant nurseries, sericulture and so forth are instances of hereditary industry. The cost of items accessible from such exercises is by and large less.

c) Extractive Ventures :

Extractive ventures remove important minerals, metals and so forth from the regular components like soil, water and air. These businesses are worried about the disclosure and use of regular assets like minerals and woods.

d) Assembling Enterprises :

Producing ventures are worried about the change of natural substance into completed merchandise. They make structure utility. The results of essential and extractive businesses like cotton, ironore, unrefined petroleum, and so on are utilized as a natural substance in these enterprises.

e) Development Businesses :

Development businesses are worried about the development work like development of scaffolds, dams, trenches, streets, harbors, building and so forth. These enterprises don't work in plant structures yet at the site designated..

f) Administration Ventures :

Administration ventures produce theoretical merchandise for example products which shouldn't be visible or contacts for instance transport, protection, banking and so on. These administrations are fundamental and helpful for the development of business.

II. Trade :

Trade includes that multitude of exercises which work with move of possession and development of merchandise from the focuses of creation to the focuses of utilization. In other word it includes all types of exchange and the administrations that help exchanging. Business incorporate exchange and helps to exchange.

A) Exchange :

Exchange implies trading of labor and products. It includes move of responsibility for from the dealer to purchaser against cash. All in all, exchange is a trade of labor and products at a cost which the shoppers are prepared to pay. Customers might be a people, government and enterprises who need unrefined components.

1. Interior Exchange :

Interior exchange is otherwise called home exchange. It is led inside the country. It very well may be at neighborhood level, local level or public level.

a) Discount exchange :

It includes purchasing in enormous amounts from makers and offering in more modest parts to retailers. The distributer is a connection among producers and retailers.

b) Retail Exchange :

Retail exchange includes purchasing in more modest parcels from the distributer's and Offering in tiny amounts to the shoppers for individual utilization. The retailer is the last connection in the chain of dispersion. He laid out a connection among distributer and Buyers.

2. Outside Exchange :

The exchange carried on between the dealers of two unique nations is called outer exchange. It is likewise called as Global exchange or unfamiliar exchange. It incorporates following exchange.

a) Product Exchange :

Send out exchange includes selling of merchandise starting with one country then onto the next. For instance, when products are sold from India to America.

b) Import exchange :

Import exchange includes purchasing of merchandise from a Dealer of another country. For instance, a purchaser from India buys merchandise from a dealer of china.

c) Entrepot exchange :

At the point when merchandise are imported from one nation and afterward reexported to another country, it is called entrepot. For instance an Indian merchant might purchase merchandise from Bangladesh and afterward offer it to Pakistan.

B) Helps To-Exchange

Helps to exchange comprise one more part of business. Helps to exchange incorporate different organizations which are valuable for the lead of exchanging exercises. There are as per the following.

a) Warehousing :

There is a delay among creation and utilization. Nonetheless, products which are created at one time are not consumed simultaneously. Consequently, it becomes important to make plan for capacity or warehousing. Farming product like wheat and rice are occasional in nature however are consumed over time. Then again products, for example, Umbrellas and woolen materials are created consistently however are requested exclusively during specific seasons. Thusly merchandise should be put away in distribution centers till they are requested.

b) Transport :

There is a spot hole from the spot of creation to the spot of utilization. Merchandise are delivered in one piece of the nation and Utilization in different pieces of the country. Transport fills the spot hole. It meets out the hole among maker and customer. It assists the producer with growing their business sectors from neighborhood to territorial, local to public and public to worldwide.

c) Correspondence :

Correspondences works with move of data. It includes move of messages starting with one individual then onto the next and starting with one spot then onto the next. It very well may be in oral or composing type of data. Oral correspondence can happen through phone or by and by. Composed correspondence is conceivable through letter, fax, email and so on. It works with speedy exchange of messages to rapidly take significant choices.

d) Protection :

Protection diminishes the issue of dangers. Business is likely to dangers and vulnerabilities. These are unavoidable in the field of business. Dangers might be because of fire, burglary, mishap or some other normal disaster. Insurance agency who go about as hazard carrier cover gambles. Protection attempts to decrease gambles by spreading them out over a more prominent number of individuals. The pace of premium relies on the sort of dangers and the period for which the gamble is covered.

e) Banking :

Banking takes care of the issue of installment and works with trade among purchasers and merchants. Loaning and getting the assets are the conventional elements of the banks. Banks give short, medium and long haul advances to the poor individuals. Different capabilities have begun acquiring significance, for example, vendor banking, improvement banking, charge cards and so on. This has additionally worked with to exchange.

f) Promoting :

Publicizing as a strong showcasing instrument of correspondence is profoundly helpful to the maker, retailers, shoppers and the general public overall. Publicizing is essentially intended to illuminate, make interest and prompt individuals to act with a specific goal in mind. It very well may be utilized for conveying both business and non-business messages. It makes consciousness of the item and constructs a decent brand picture in the personalities of shopper and society at large.

g) Charismatic skill :

Charismatic skill alludes to individual introductions by the company's deals force to make deals and building client connections. It works with individual selling. The sales reps give data to the purchasers. They persuade and convince purchasers to purchase merchandise.

h) Commercial Specialists :

During the time spent dissemination, makers and buyers can't have direct contact, as purchasers are spread over an immense region; commercial specialists eliminate this trouble of individual contact. Trade specialists are the delegates who structure a connection between the purchasers and the venders. They don't convey business in their own name. These are a few sorts of commercial specialists like representatives, commission specialists, barkers, financiers, guarantors, and so on.

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